Rear Admiral EDWIN T. LAYTON's

Transcribed by Elliott D. Long
BIO: Edwin Thomas Layton (7 April 1903 in Nauvoo, Illinois - 12 April 1984 in Carmel, California) was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, who is most noted for his work as cryptanalyst during World War II. In 1929, Layton was one of a small number of naval officers selected to go to Japan for language training. Significantly, on his voyage to Japan he met another young naval officer, Joseph J. Rochefort, assigned to the same duty. Both became intelligence officers, Rochefort specializing in decryption efforts, Layton in using intelligence information in war planning. Layton and Rochefort, both of whom were in Pearl Harbor, worked closely together in the months before the attack, largely trying to figure out what information was being denied them by Washington, and even more closely after the war began, especially in the month before the Battle of Midway. They both made signal contributions to that victory. His linguistic ability and fluency in Japanese proved to be assets as his career progressed, even more so as World War II began in Europe.

AKAO School:
The first artist of this family was Yoshitsugu, born in Fukui of Echizen, early 18th cent. of samurai parentage (Akao Kensaemon).
The second Yoshitsugu (early 18th cent.) was called Shoheiei. Akao Yoshitsugu lived in Edo and produced many fine pierced shakudo tsuba.
The third, Shoheiei lived in Tokyo. (d.1751).
The fourth generation - Yoshitsugu, lived in Edo in 1744. Tahichi (Tashichi) about 1825, who also signed his name Kichiji, produced interesting color effects by combining various metals. Tatsutoshi (early 18th cent.) a skillful workman, famed for fine temper achieved and excellance and originality of his designs. Masatsugu and Tomotsugu (or Yoji) of the Takahashi family, pupils of the Akao school known for their "guri" style of carving (usually a red spiral design on a black ground - an imitation of lacquer -) early 19th cent. Note: Many imitations of Tashichi shakudo tsuba but they do not equal his in beauty and skill (d. age 53)

Family name "Shoemon". Founded by Tadamasa (d.1657), a tsuba maker living at Kurokawa dani, Akasaka district, Edo early 17th century. Artists of this school famed for originality of design and skill in temporing iron. Showing preference for open or perforated work, they were largely restricted to the use of conventional designs - often looking for inspiration to the classic models of Kamakura and Ashikaga periods.
Second generation Tadamasa (d.1677), Masatora (d.1707) and Tadatoki (Hikojuro) (d.1746), the latter noted for his skill in perforated work. His style influenced subornant members of this school up to early 19th century. Their work was particularly interesting in 'Mokume', producing a curious grained affect, like wood, achieved using a special method of hammering together pieces of iron of varying degrees of hardness and then subjecting the whole to a corrosive bath. Akasaka school maintained for more than 250 years, the excellant standards set by the founder.
Akasaka tsuba resemble Higo, which started later and flourished contemporaneously with them, in Western Japan.
Akasaka tsuba - more attention paid to tempering, designs were more refined and proportional to the tsuba. Seppa dai smaller than Higo.
Higo tsuba show greater strength (of design) and undefinedness in detail.
Akasaka - favorite subjects: wild geese, plum blossoms, lake Biwa, chikubushima (in lake Biwa), and decorative written characters, all executed with more freedom than those of the Higo school.

AWA School:
This is a branch of the Shoami school in the province of Awa, dating from the middle of the 17th cent. Founded by Tansai, followed by Ujinao, Ujiyasu, Yasufusa, Masayasu, Masachika,then Nagafusa and Nagahide (and Masanobu). The latter four (including Masanobu) best known as workers in relief and inlay (18th cent.) Masanobu inlays on perforated iron or brass - noted for unusual size of ryohitsu. Tansai thru Masayasu in work in iron.

CHOSHU or HAGI School:
Mitsutsune, an artist of the late 14th cent., is said to be the originator of this school. But no examples of his work are known. The earliest tsuba known were made in Yamaguchi and Hagi, in Suo and Nagato Provinces, respectivly, during the early 17th cent. Toward the end of 17th, and during the 18th cent., a number of artists separated from the main school and started independently with their followers in other places, but continued to sign them as Choshu or Hagi tsuba.
The main school, the Nakai, from a family of artists that first worked in Yamaguchi and moved to Choshu early in the 17th cent. The most celebrated offshoots were the Okamoto, Kaneko, Kawaji, Yamichi, Inoye, and Nakahara.
Early in the 17th cent. the great Umatada Myoju of Kyoto, settled in Yamaguchi for a time, exerting considerable influence on the Choshu school. His pupil Umetada Masatomo founded the Okada family school.
By the middle of the 18th cent., Choshu school leaders were Tomomitsu, Tomotsune, Tomomichi, Tomoyuki, Tomonobu, Yukinori, Tomokatsu, Tomohisa, Nobumasa, and Masatomo. Their tsuba differed from their contemporaries, not only in being of finer quality iron, but also in having a beautiful surface, nearly black in color, produced by action of acids. Their designs follow the Kano and Sesshu schools of painting.

Made by 'Gorobei' (Daigoro lived in Kyoto - called Hidesada maker of Daigoro tsuba - circa 1770) about the middle of 18th cent. They came under the general heading of Kyo tsuba, those made for the Kyoto market by obscure artists not members of any particular school or family. Perforated representing birds, crests, and insects.

The exact date of this family and school is unknown. Its manner of inlay became very popular during late 16th cent. and early 17th cent. Hence many artists came to Fushimi in Yamashiro to learn this method of inlay.

Tsuba by those who lived in GoKinai (the 5 provinces around Kyoto - Yamashiro, Yamato, Kawachi, Settsu, and Izumi) where many schools flourished - hence the term is misleading - for example, it includes Heianjo, and Fushimi schools, etc. Gokinai tsuba produced in 17th cent. resembled those of Higo but showed more attention to inlay. Best work in later 17th cent.

GOTO School:
Excercised great influence on the design and workmanship of sword furniture; famous for their decorative metal work. The founder, Goto Yujo, served under the Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa and died in 1512. He established rules and traditions, religiously kept for 11 generations, more than 200 years. The fifth Tokujo was court metal artisan to Hideyoshi and living in Kyoto court and also the Tokugawa Shogunate. Early 17th cent., 11th Goto Tsujo was given an establishment in Yedo by the Shogun and saw Goto prestige hard pressed, in the progressive atmosphere of the Eastern Capital by such artists as Somin, Toshinaga, Yasuchika and others. Forced by such competition, he departed from the rigid ancient rules. Up to mid 19th cent., Goto tsuba were made only as personal favors, or by order of the Daimyo. Now a member of a collateral Goto branch, Goto Ichijo, broke this tradition, becoming well known as a tsuba maker and also of sword furniture. The tradition of Goto was exemplified by their style of chasing or engraving called Iebori using stylized and conventional traditional designs.

1st HOAN:
According to Kawaguchi, Saburo, ___ Hoan was a tsuba artisan during the time of Nobunaga who later went to Kai and studied and worked under the Great Nobuiye. After the fall and death of Takeda (Shingen) he remained in Kai and worked for Lord Asano. His Owari period tsuba were thin, oval, with square rims and also with rounded square rims with shallow surface carving (____bori). After reaching Kai Province his tsuba were in Nobuiye style, thick oval rounded-square rims with many done in wheel type pierce work and signed on the right of the seppa dai simply "HOAN". He used a special variety of Owari style forging methods, later called the Hoan "____ame gane". His dependants followed Lord Asano through Kishu and settled in Geishu (Aki). NOTE) According to a report by the present day Hoan to Matsukage, the chief of the Kyu___o Castle of Kasugai county of Owari, perished with Oda Nobunaga. Sakyo's son became an armor maker and he was the first HOAN.

Most are hammer forged, small round and strangely thick for this period. Simple plain pierce work - "iron bones" protrude out from rim due to the Owari style tempering/forging process used. Rims square, slightly rounded or round. Were first made during the early Ashikaga periods by a swordsmith Miya, who lived at Kanayama, N of the Atsuta Shrine, who subsequently made tsuba. None are signed, but for classical elegance, integrity, simplicity and honesty, and solidarity they are unsurpassed. They were made until the Tokugawa period. Those before 'Keicho' 1600 approx. are classified early period while those thereafter are later period. In the latter period, the iron bones appear to be artificially contrived or do not appear at all.

The oldest articles of Kinko were made by the Mino Bori School. Their tradition is that of Goto Yujo descended from that branch. The name Mino Bori establishes their general area but gives no precise location. They were the descendants of tachi accessory makers and such tachi accessories with engraved/carved chrysamthemum blossoms are sometimes seen. The period of there manufacture is a matter of speculation but is thought to be from early Muromachi through the Genroku period of the Tokugawa Era. Their names are rare and no recorded dates of production. The signed pieces are few - "Mitsuakara of Mino" or "Mitsunobu of Mino" and a few others but these are all craftsmen of the Tokugawa Era. There are some unsigned products but it is believed they were not made by famous artisans; also it seems that some so-called "ready-made" pieces were turned out and among them were pieces which became highly prized.

ONO Tsuba:
In 1161 six iron workers moved to Ono, in Omi Province and the name Ono forge has been famous ever since. One of the above six artists was a maker of iron stirrups, Fujiwara Shigehisa. The Ono tsuba was made in the Kanayama style by Fukushige, Fukumori, Nobushige and others up until the early Tokugawa times. Some bore signatures. At that time there was only the No foundry and the Funa foundry, even today there is a Funa ji ___ . Incidentely among the villages on the outskirts of Ono ___ is Kanayama Mura (village). It may have some connection with Kanayama tsuba - a matter for further research.

OWARI Tsuba:
The king of pierced tsuba - chiefly hammer forged - usually large round tsuba having various and sundry, interesting, pleasing designs in pierce work, and rounded square rims. Old pieces have iron bones appearing on the rims like Kanayama (above). The variations and the shape of the hisuana are unequalled by any other class of tsuba. In this matter Owari appears about like the Kanayama and in the first manufacture may also be the same as Kanayama, subsequently becoming exclusivily tsuba makers. None carry signatures and old pieces have classical elegance, antiquity, magnificance and grace. With the beginning of the Tokugawa and influenced by the fashion of the capital, the old elegance and grandeur deteriorated and the iron bones disappeared. The decline of the popularity of the Kanayama, the Owari pierced tsuba and also of the Yagyu was regretable. Like the Kanayama, those Owari before 1600 are classed as early period, those thereafter as later period.

There was a tsuba in the Kanayama style signed/cut with the name Nobuiye which was made at the Nobuya (Nobuie & Nobu) for the Chief of the Izumo in 1639 by an apprentice of the Nagoya swordsmith. The same person also made many lance blades and arrowheads. Incidently, in addition to the Myochin Nobuiye of Koshu (Kori), the Great Nobuiye, there were also Nobuiye in Geshu (Aki), Chikushu (Chikuzeno Chikug-o), in Joshu (Kozuke), Kagu, Owari, Akasaka of Edo, Suruga, Shoami and others. None however can be compared to the Great Nobuiye.

TOKEI Tsuba:
From early Tokugawa period until Genroku (1688-1703) there were several tsuba makers of Nagoya whose tsuba had rounded square rims with pierce work signed "Tokei". Their ancestor tsuba Sukesaemon Tokei worked for Ieyasu, and at that time that Yoshitsugu entered the country left for Nagoya and worked for a long time as head of foundry. The second generation Sukesaemon received his name Tokei from the Provencial Chief Mitsutomo.

TODA Tsuba:
The tsuba made during Genroku (1688-1703) by the Nagoya tsuba maker Toda Hirozaemon closely resembled those of Sakura Yamasaka and Kyoto's Sadatsugu, having rounded square rims, small piercework and minute "amida yasuri" and also fine minut pierce work and ground piercework and rims with hammered finish. Some have gold inlays. Signature is small.

YAGYU Tsuba:
These were mainly small, round, thick, square rimmed tsuba with pierced and carved grounds. Sometime around the end of the 17th cent., a retainer of the chief of Owari named Yagyu had some tsuba made of Kanayama style to which he added his designs. The makers of these tsuba at that time were the tsuba artisans Furutetsu Gozaemon of Edo, the third Yamakichi, Fukui Jiazemon of Owari, Toda Hikozaemon of Owari, and Ono of Nagoya, and were mostly unsigned. Despite being a newcomer, Nagoya Norisuke and his apprentices made a great many of these. The designs totaled about 160 and included 'the wooden well crib', 'the bamboo well crib', a stalk of bamboo, wheels in the waves, moon in the water, the well bucket, the themes of the 36 Poets and others. The themes of the 36 poets and others had old iron ground, had designs from Kano Tanyu and carving in the Goto style were called 'san saku' or 'three talents'.

Yamakichi tsuba, tsuba by the 1st and 2nd Tamasaka Kichibei are mostly hammer forged; having protruding "iron bones" ____ ____, they have a simple honesty and antique elegancelike a lingering melody - a model of chaste art of the Orient. Yamasaka Kichibei was an armor maker for the Oda Nobunaga family whose tsuba weremostly of oval shape or lobed mokko with rounded square or rounded rims and pierced with designs of wheels and signed with the five character kanji. Some hold the view that he and the 1st Yamakichi predated him.
1st Yamakichi Tsuba:
A helmet by an armor maker of the Oda family bears the engraved signature 'Shigenori'. He was an apprentice of the Great Nobuiye. His early tsuba resembled those of Yamasaka Kichibei, rounded square or rounded rims, most having designs of small perforations or wheels in openwork while his later works were in the style of Nobuiye - many with "uchikaeshi" mimi, amida yasuri, date yasuri and small perforations and signed like illustration #1 (page 27 - vol 25 of Token Shiri). The character 'Yama' in #1 has straight lines while in #2 it has an angle. In the character __ , the angle of #1 is more obtuse than #2.
2nd Yamakichi tsuba:
It is believed that early in the Tokugawa period, he moved to Nagoya. Most of his works resembled those of his fathers later day products. Many with "uchikaeshi" mimi and "sukenokoshi" mimi. His signature was like that of figure 2 (page 27 - vol 25 as above). The first stroke of the character Yama was a short dash (not a full stroke), the second stroke was a sharp angle. His angles of __ were more acute than figure 1.
Sakura Yamakichi:
Was a tsuba maker of Nagoya during the Genroku period (1688-1703) and was probably called the 3rd Yamakichi. His tsuba have all antique elegance and simplicity, were thick with rounded square rims or hammered rims. Many carved small piercings and some had designs of nets in openwork. His signatureconsisted of Bishu carved to the right of the seppadai, beneath it a cherry blossom seal was cut and to the left - Yamakichibei carved in their strokes. Additionally, among the tsuba bearing the name Yamakichi, there are works of his later years and imitations. Most are carved with the name in small narrow strokes and those skillfully done are probably works of his last years - those signed with large characters are mostly imitations but many fine pieces were made by his second generation, _____ .
Sadahiro Tsuba:
His signature was mostly signed on the right of the seppadai. He was a tsuba maker of Nagoya and the first generation was an apprentice of the 1st Yamakichi and worked in his style. The 2nd generation added the style of the Kyoto Umetada, some having gold inlays. Many of the 1st & 2nd generations tsuba had black specks protruding from their rims. Most of the 3rd generation's tsuba were small, having small perforations but did not have the above black specks on their rims. It is believed that the 3rd generation was the Inoyama Bishu swordsmith Sadahiro of 1688-1735.


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